AGB99 – A Closer Look at AGB99

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Completion of core helium burning returns the star to a luminous, cooler phase as it evolves onto the asymptotic giant branch AGB. Here, the hydrogen shell is (almost) extinguished and the star is subjected to recurrent thermal instabilities. During these thermally-pulsing AGB AGB99 phases, helium shell flashes occur — periodic thermonuclear runaway events in the He-shell that cause the He-shell to explode and fling off material into the stellar atmosphere.

These ejecta swell up the He-shell, expanding the star and reintroducing its hydrogen. The resulting star is a spheroidal, blue-shifted spectral type known as an S star. The spectral properties of S stars are defined by the presence of zirconium oxide absorption bands ZrO. These spectra are distinguished from M giants by their disappearance of titanium oxide absorption lines and the appearance of ZrO bands in carbon and oxygen-rich regions.

Distinguishing intrinsic and extrinsic S stars is difficult without high-resolution spectroscopy, where the detection of technetium is possible. However, the spectral features that distinguish these two classes are distinct and other measurements serve to separate them with reasonable statistical accuracy.

For example, stars that exhibit blue excursions like the Mira variables in their spectra are most likely to be on the AGB. Conversely, stars that appear red on the RGB have probably accreted s-process material from a companion.

Since the proper motion of S stars is about -220 km s-1 relative to the Sun, Hipparcos’ lower limit distances for these stars are about 25 pc away. This translates into a parallax of 40 mas, well within the range of Hipparcos’ capability. This suggests that the FAST sample is primarily composed of giants and AGB stars. The infrared data from Akari, especially the S9W and L18W bandpasses, further support this conclusion. This is the first time in which an extensive set of infrared data has been used to characterize FAST objects.